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Universities: Too Big To Fail?

News from the world of education reform: [1]

New Mexico’s high school juniors would be required to apply to at least one college or show they have committed to other post-high school plans as part of a new high school graduation requirement being pushed by two state lawmakers.

The proposal is scheduled for its first legislative hearing on Thursday. If it eventually becomes law, New Mexico would be the first state to require post-high school plans of students, said Jennifer Zinth, who is the director of high school and STEM research at the Education Commission of the States, a Denver-based group that tracks education policy.

The bill sponsored by Rep. Nate Gentry, a Republican, and Daniel Ivey-Soto, a Democrat, would make it mandatory for public school juniors to apply to at least one two- or four-year college. Exceptions would be made for students who can prove they have committed to military service, a vocational program, or work upon graduation in an apprenticeship or internship. Parents and school guidance counselors would have to approve of the students’ plans.

The reader who sends this works in higher education. He writes:

This is the bottom line:

The measure was drafted with the aim of reversing declines in college enrollment across the state, which fell nearly 14 percent from 155,065 enrolled students in 2010 to 133,830 in 2016.

This shows that the higher education bubble is real. Who the hell is the state to demand this? Public schools are something the state offers so that people who think that college is worth their time and money can benefit from them. Clearly, fewer students think it is worth it than before. Is the state so generous and philanthropic, so full of goodwill to men that it is going to, in Rousseau’s words, force these kids to be free?

Going to college is not an obligation for being a good citizen. If it is, then the state should make it free–and also admit that their secondary schools are not doing their job of adequately preparing students to be good citizens. Of course this has nothing to do with good citizenship or cultivating the mind. It has everything to do with money. Like all the other major universities, the universities in New Mexico have been riding the bubble and leveraging their finances on the illusion of continual increase in enrollment. These universities cannot stay solvent without constant growth in attendance; they are effectively business corporations now. This is a recipe for financial disaster. When enrollment not only fails to increase but drops, the universities are in grave danger.

Remember Missouri after students decided they did not want to attend a school run by SJWs? [2]

New Mexico education is likewise being fiscally devastated by drops in enrollment. The enrollment is declining at 2% and has declined 9% since 2012. [3]

New Mexico is a poor state, so if there are fewer bodies in classes paying tuition, the state will have trouble making up the difference and so the budget is going to suffer. (There is a certain amount of irony in that they have been funding scholarships using the state lottery–a voluntary tax the mathematically-incompetent levy on themselves.)
https://www.abqjournal.com/1017309/unm-approves-2-9-billion-budget.html [4]

https://www.abqjournal.com/1013074/unm-considers-cuts-to-workforce.html [5]

I would love to know how much of UNM’s budget goes to faculty versus administrative overhead, but we all know that administrative costs have inflated the cost of higher education. These administrators have also run universities like for-profit businesses and so I do not feel that sorry for them: when you dance with the devil . . . That is, if you choose to live by the free market, you are choosing to die by it. Or at least that is what normally happens.

When people no longer want the product of a private corporation, they stop buying it and the corporation dies. But universities, despite recent appearances, are not really private corporations, they are a monstrous hybrid preserving the worst of both the public and private sector.

Crossing orcs with goblin men was bad, but not nearly so foul a craft by which the bureaucrat and businessman were bred to produce the university administrator, a rent-seeker of the highest order. These damn businesses won’t die. As part of the government, they are too big too fail so if push comes to shove, the government will force you to apply to them.

What do you think? Is this a sign of the bubble that everybody has been afraid of popping? Let’s hear from professors, college administrators, students and others. What are you seeing where you are?

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121 Comments To "Universities: Too Big To Fail?"

#1 Comment By Hound of Ulster On February 1, 2018 @ 11:17 pm

My sister and brother-in-law both teach, and have tenure, at SIU-Carbondale, whose new chairman decided to hire his daughter and son-in-law for new positions that were seemingly created just for them. He was brought in by the trustees to ‘reform’ the university…just google it, it’s nuts.

And academics like my sister and bro-in-law loath the administration factotums and their useless pronouncements as much as anybody else.

#2 Comment By JamesB On February 1, 2018 @ 11:43 pm

At JohnF: I work for a state government in a IT job and do not have a computer science degree (although I do have a college degree) so I think that the answer to your question is, yes, employers do occasionally hire employees for IT jobs when they don’t have computer science degrees.

#3 Comment By Harris On February 1, 2018 @ 11:57 pm

Could we at least look at the NM proposal rather than look at our own neighborhood or anecdotes about college? Asking that high school seniors have a plan when they get out seems like a fairly reasonable action. The NM plan specifically includes attendance at a two-year college — a great source for gaining the tech skills and credentialing for getting on with life.

Moreover, it is the presence of an educated workforce (skilled trade and college grad) that fuels an economy and supports entrepreneurs. There are two qualifying extensions with this: first, that to have students attend college, means supporting those colleges. In Michigan, at least, the increase in tuition is substantially driven by the shift of state funds away from the universities, thereby transferring more of the economic burden to the student. Skilled and professional workforces are not commanded as if by magic, but are the stuff of real investment. A second corollary is that the push for students to make a plan also means that the universities and colleges that accept those students likewise deliver on that plan; this measure is the premise for more State control over curriculum, not less.

Finally, to return to the high school level, asking a student to consider what comes next, asking them to think and not drift — to be responsible — is hardly a burden. The surprising thing (evidently) is that only some schools do this. Talk about building a culture of (cultural) poverty! The NM proposal fights the fight that you want to win; the grief-making is little more than a snatching of defeat from the jaws of victory.

#4 Comment By JonF On February 2, 2018 @ 6:20 am

Re: I work for a state government in a IT job and do not have a computer science degree (although I do have a college degree)

I also work in IT and do not have an CS degree– my BS is in physics. I was expressing surprise though that people could be hired without any college degree.

#5 Comment By Jack B. Nimble On February 2, 2018 @ 7:11 am

marco lowenstein says:
February 1, 2018 at 12:18 pm
I would agree with the respondents who say there is no harm in having to apply for college and/or make a college plan as a part of a high school education. Sounds like a useful skill. Yes our education system has problems but I do not share some of the contributors opinion that it IS the problem.

Marco gets it exactly right.

I’m disappointed, though, that few commenters addressed the rent-seeking issue–it’s pervasive on college campuses just like it is in the broader economy. Here’s an example that does NOT involve administrators: a VERY prestigious undergraduate honor society voted a few years ago to increase the minimum foreign language requirement from 1 to 2 years. This was a rather blatant attempt to boost enrollment in foreign language courses and thus boost employment opportunities for foreign language professors. The thing is, foreign language mastery probably DOES require at least two years of instruction in many cases, and bilingualism is a very useful skill in today’s world. So rent-seeking on campus is not always a bad thing.

#6 Comment By The Scientist 880 On February 2, 2018 @ 7:33 am

La Lubu,

I am a class migrant. I won a lottery and was exclusively educated in the richest town in Massachusetts through high school, then went off to Georgetown for undergrad where I was surrounded by the upper middle class and then got a job at Harvard where it was more of the same and grad school. I’ve watched these people closely as an outsider for 23 years. I’ve been in their homes, in their work places and their social events.

The best advice I can give you about the is when it comes to matters of money/jobs/education, NEVER listen to what they say, pay attention to their actions. There is this weird cultural thing upper middle class people do where they say things like “money can’t buy happiness” and talk about how there are studies showing that your happiness will max out at $70k a year and anymore money than that won’t do much since your needs are met. Then you’ll watch them take their families on $10k vacations to Europe, live in homes that cost $900k because they are in public school districts that are the best in the country (this is mostly a coastal knowledge hub city thing from what I’ve gathered. The southern rich kids I’ve interacted with are no where near as driven by school as northeastern and Silicon Valley kids I’ve been around), they give their kids new cars at 16, etc. it’s a weird sort of value signaling that they are doing and I don’t think they mean it to be condescending but the upper middle class doesn’t interact much with working class and poor people other than paying them to fix the roof or going to Good Will. The way it comes across though is like a fat man going to a place that has lots of famines and telling everyone there that they don’t actually want a ton of food that will make them fat because it will raise their blood pressure. It feels like they are trying to discourage you from getting what they already have.

Did everyone forget about 2008 when all those blue collar men were out of work for years because of the recession? I was at Georgetown when it started and on campus, you couldn’t tell the difference, no one left school because the school serves mostly upper middle class kids and rich kids. The working class kids are on big scholarships by and large since they are the cream of the crop of working class kids academically. I did have friends at UMass though and it was a bloodbath at state schools. Tons of kids had to drop out because their parents couldn’t pay anymore. None of these people seem to be thinking about 30 years from now. They see jobs today in various blue collar fields and don’t give it any critical thought as to can an 18 year old reasonably expect to have this job 30 years from now and still have wages that will provide for a family?

Let’s take an example of mechanic.

GM, Volvo and WV are going electric. They will all be electric by 2030 they say. Electric cars are completely different from internal combustion engine cars. The skills you learn to fix gas cars are irrelevant to electric ones. Electric cars also need much less mainainence than gas cars. There are fewer moving parts and no fluids to change. They are predicting a MASSIVE layoff and closing if mechanic shops when this change finally happens. What 18 year old, after seeing their parents struggle in the recession would sign up for that exact life if they had any aptitude to go to college?

[6]

#7 Comment By The Scientist 880 On February 2, 2018 @ 7:52 am

Living in the Ivory Tower,

The reason why these schools are nominally catholic and not hardcore about it is because they have made a decision that they want to be national, if not globally recognized schools. The way that you get that distinction is by attracting the students with the highest SAT scores. The vast majority of those students aren’t conservative Catholics in America. The overwhelming majority of those students in the world aren’t conservative Catholics. The schools everyone on these boards talk about which are very orthodox in their education; st. Thomas Aquinas college, Christendom, Ave Maria, etc. aren’t even regional brands. These schools have zero name recognition and don’t attract the best students. In fact, they are so hard up for students, that the parents of these kids often know the parents their child’s boyfriend/girlfriend. They pull from the big white catholic families. I just found this out over thanksgiving, it’s actually not that rare for multiple sibling at these schools to marry a different set of siblings! In a country of 330 million people, it’s weird for a brother and sister of one family to marry a brother and sister of another.

#8 Comment By VikingLS On February 2, 2018 @ 8:04 am

“I’d like to know the specific reasons for the changed minds among other students.”

Both of us linked articles that went into that. I know now you either didn’t even bother to actually read the article you linked from the New York Times, or you simply will refuse to believe the information stated there that doesn’t confirm your belief that racism is the cause of all the problems.

Well I guess if the only tool you understand how to use is a hammer, every problem looks like a nail.

#9 Comment By galanx On February 2, 2018 @ 8:49 am

My plan upon graduation was “work for a few months, throw a pack on my back and see the world”. Would that count? Spent a few years travelling, taught school in Africa, worked on the railway, picked fruit in Europe, did oil exploration in Australia and the South China Sea- that was back in the early ’70s, when I guess work was easier to come by- or seemed that way.

#10 Comment By La Lubu On February 2, 2018 @ 10:10 am

They see jobs today in various blue collar fields and don’t give it any critical thought as to can an 18 year old reasonably expect to have this job 30 years from now and still have wages that will provide for a family?

Yes, this. As I said before, I love what I do. I’m glad I took the path that I did. But that path is much narrower now than it was when I entered the trade 29 years ago, and work opportunities were narrowing then. I’ve never been on the road as much as I am now, and frankly if it wasn’t for nuclear plants and pollution control projects on coal-fired powerhouses (not sustainable for another generation!), I would have been starved out long ago. De-industrialization is real.

And so for that matter, is automation. As an electrician, automation (and electric vehicles, and “green” electric production) can provide job opportunities…..but not once the labor pool floods with millions of people who’ve lost their retail, transportation, and service industry jobs to automation. This can end any number of ways, mostly illustrated in dystopian speculative fiction.

I do pay attention to what the upper middle class does. Mostly, pulling up the ladders. Or if you don’t like that analogy, maybe locking the doors to steerage and cutting loose the lifeboats is a better one. One memorable year, one of the local contractors moaned about “going broke” at the bargaining table. He took four family vacations to Hilton Head, and one long-weekend umpteenth-honeymoon style trip to Paris that year. That’s some kind of going broke.

#11 Comment By The Scientist 880 On February 2, 2018 @ 10:41 am

Jenkins,

“The sheer load of student loan debt compared to the actual income people are going to earn is a serious consideration. I’ve talked to people who finally got their pharmacy degree and license who have over $300,000 in debt, and they may be making $70,000 a year but its going to take a long time to pay it off. Especially if they’re taking on a mortgage.
Some have less debt, and a lot lower income.”

A pharmacy degree isn’t an undergraduate degree, You need to go to grad school to be a pharmacist. There are combination undergrad-grad programs that will get you through this all without spending $300k. Also, the median pharmacist makes $130k. You’re quoting a very low end salary right out of school I would guess. I don’t know where these people are working making this little money. This is a high income position. even CVS pays pharmacist $60 an hour.

[7]

[8]

You say that people without the debt are better off but I’ve seen no data that says that millenials who didn’t go to college are better off than those who have. I have friends who didn’t go to college. None of them will ever be able to afford a house in or near the city (Boston). My parents didn’t go to college but own their home in the worst neighborhood in the city and the house is valued at $380k. The bought the house for $90k in 1992. The only hope a millenial without a college degree has for owning in Massachusetts is to move 1.5-2 hours out of the city to central mass and commute in. The median home price in the city is $568,300. Almost no blue collar worker can afford a home this expensive. and all the towns around the city are filled with the wealthy.

[9]

As to your idea of kids taking a few years off to be a truck driver, this is a bad idea because non-traditional students have HORRIBLE graduation rates. The graduation rates for traditional students isn’t that great but for non-traditional, it’s awful.

[10]

#12 Comment By Turmarion On February 2, 2018 @ 11:22 am

La Lubu and The Scientist 880 make valid points.

La Lubu: It seems to be a trend these days for upper-middle-class pundits and blog commentators (regardless of political orientation) to bemoan the “everyone should go to college” mindset….and yet, you aren’t advising your own children to avoid college.

The Scientist 880: The best advice I can give you about the is when it comes to matters of money/jobs/education, NEVER listen to what they say, pay attention to their actions.

That’s fair, and I regret coming off like that. For what it’s worth, I’m not upper middle-class–my wife and I both have white-collar jobs, but I’m an adjunct and she works in the public sector, so we aren’t raking in the dough. We certainly aren’t going on vacations to Europe and such.

I come from Appalachia, and my family grew up in the environment of the “company store” and omnipotent coal companies. I therefore always have supported strong unions and I deplore their destruction by the GOP over the last thirty years. I also deplore how the Democratic party has essentially abandoned the working class, too.

La Lubu: if there’s one thing the Right and what execrably passes for a (faux) Left, Democrats and Republicans can shake hands and agree on, it’s that what used to be a middle class should be destroyed—that working people, the people who actually produce things and provide services, should be busted back both socially and financially to the status of our landless-peasant ancestors.

I totally agree with this, and deplore such actions from both parties.

If my daughter seemed to have an aptitude for some sort of trade, and really wanted to do it, and if it was something with available jobs around, I wouldn’t object to her doing that. She’ll probably want to go to college, and that will require a lot of belt-tightening for us; but if she decided college wasn’t for her, that’s OK, too.

In general, I think there has definitely been an inflation of credentials, and it is ridiculous that many occupations that in no way, shape, or form logically require a college degree, from a functional perspective, now require one for potential employees.

I’m all for [11] programs–we desperately need them, for sure, but neither side seems to want to do that.

As to the military, I’m in favor of universal conscription, with a choice of military or mandatory public service. I think this would help young people get more experience of the real world, and it might, just might, reduce our tendency towards military adventurism, if everyone’s kids were subject to getting sent somewhere unpleasant.

As Siarlys says, La Lubu speaks from experience, and her priorities are pretty close to mine. But she leaves out the fact that a lot of young people aren’t really going to do well in college. He’s right. I didn’t–and don’t–mean to come off as saying other people’s kids ought not to go to college. I just note, empirically, from experience, that there are lots of kids–some from middle or upper-middle class families, in fact–that have no business in college. What do we do for them?

When I said, “I don’t know how to solve such a problem,” I wasn’t throwing up my hands. What I meant was, given the current trends, I don’t know what to do. Automation is increasingly destroying not only blue-collar but also white-collar jobs (e.g. software that obviates the need for paralegals). Self-service shopping kiosks are on the way; and so on. You could outlaw such things (New Jersey, for one example, does not permit self-service gas stations)–but such laws would unlikely be able to pass. I don’t object to giving those who want it a shot at college–hell, I’m with Bernie Sanders in supporting free higher education.

That said, there are limits to a service/information economy. To use an old saw my dad used to use, you can’t all [12]. Not everyone can be an IT person, or a doctor or lawyer, or a manager, etc. However, the way the economy is going, low-skill jobs are on the way out; high skilled blue collar jobs are becoming scarcer and harder to get into; and there is a limit to how many information/service jobs will be created–all this along with the fact that there is always going to be a segment of the population not fit for the higher-level college requiring jobs.

It seems to me we either need to reduce automation (but how will there be the political will to do that?); or pass policies to revitalize unions (but how do we make the actual jobs come back?); or, failing all else, develop a [13] (but there’s a thicket of problems with that).

I guess what I’m saying is that I see some directions to go in solving the problem, but those directions are all more or less impossible because of the current political climate; and I see some problems that don’t seem to have any clear solutions. Does that make sense?

#13 Comment By VikingLS On February 2, 2018 @ 12:18 pm

It’s not that a college education isn’t of value. The problem is that easy credit has allowed it to be priced over its value. You can’t saddle a teacher or a social worker with the kind of debt that used to follow doctors or lawyers, and as to the current cost of medical school, we don’t even want to think about it.

It really doesn’t have to be this way. I could point to, well really most of the world, where nothing quite like our system exists, and a university education costs comparatively little for those that qualify. I don’t even have to do that though. my alma mater Berea College still doesn’t charge tuition. Yes there isn’t a lazy river, but honestly even those supposedly useless programs like Women’s Studies are still supportable under that model. Granted Berea has had a century to arrange it’s business model so it could do this, but a combination of austerity measures and looking for other income streams could allow a lot of institutions to get tuition costs back to a reasonable level.

It’s not that it can’t be done, I just don’t think the will is there.

#14 Comment By Polichinello On February 2, 2018 @ 12:40 pm

Electric cars also need much less mainainence than gas cars. There are fewer moving parts and no fluids to change. They are predicting a MASSIVE layoff and closing if mechanic shops when this change finally happens.

You know what will fix this?

MOAR IMMIGRATION!!1!!1!!

#15 Comment By Siarlys Jenkins On February 2, 2018 @ 2:39 pm

For the record, orcs were bred from captured and tortured elves, not from goblin men. Goblin is a traditional European folk tale creature, which Tolkien used in “The Hobbit” but renamed the creatures in the grander context of the “Lord of the Rings” trilogy as orcs. “Trolls were made in mockery of ents as orcs were of elves.”

The Scientest 800 offers sound advice about upper middle class elites. However, he has an unfortunate tendency to conflate any and all points of view that diverge from his own as coming from those same elites. Methinks he’s so busy trying to survive with his soul intact after winning the lottery, that he has lost touch with the, er, DIVERSITY of experiences and viewpoints out here in the rest of the world. It is true that those who proclaim “Who needs money” are generally those who have flown on a first class ticket to a tropical resort where they can relax for three weeks in a luxury “cottage” with a private beach and still have their “job” waiting for them when they get home. And who have so much money they’ve hired others to keep track of it for them, and hardly remember what it is.

It is true that as electric cars become more prevalent, skills with internal combustion cars will be less in demand. However, it is not true that by the age of 25, you’ve learned all you are every going to learn, and you will never acquire new skills. Internal combustion mechanics have a leg up on most of us in learning about electric car maintenance, because many of the systems are similar, and others use the same sort of standard moving parts.

Anyone recall how Dorothy Vaughn got the entire west wing computing group transitioned into programming an IBM conputer? In the movie version of “Hidden Figures”? I’m pretty sure that’s NOT how it happened in real life, but something messier and less dramatic kinda sorta like it happened, certainly on Vaughn’s part, and its believable she arranged to take a number of the others in her group with her. Its a good example.

Asking that high school seniors have a plan when they get out seems like a fairly reasonable action.

Quite possibly. But legislating that it become a REQUIREMENT to receive a DIPLOMA is a horse of a different color. Students have worked hard for 12-13 years for their diplomas, which are a bare minimum for most jobs. Tacking on all kinds of “I think everyone should try this” fads is ludicrous. The student has passing grades in all required subjects. They have been given the option to do various extra-curricular activities, volunteer in the community, consult with the guidance department about college applications or vocational development. They may or may not have taken advantage of these options, but they have earned their diploma by completing the course work with passing grades. That should be the end of it.

#16 Comment By Alex (the one that likes Ike) On February 3, 2018 @ 2:06 am

By the way, electric cars got at least one serious flaw that usually becomes critical if you’re not using the thing for leisure. You cannot charge it as fast as you can fill the tank. And the time is the most valuable currency. Plus having more electric cars means that you need to get more electrical energy from somewhere. Which is not exactly good for the environment (even if we don’t mention the necessity of finding the way to safely dispose worn lithium batteries), since there are only two ways of generating electricity that are any close to being cost-effective, unless you’ve got a Colorado River in your vicinity: thermal power and the dreaded atom.

So, unless someone discovers some new secrets of the actual Tesla – the moustached one – internal combustion engines will remain prevalent for decades to come.

#17 Comment By Mia On February 3, 2018 @ 10:38 am

“Parents and school guidance counselors would have to approve of the students’ plans.”

I think this is the most insulting part of the story. When you graduate from high school, aren’t you usually 18 years old? Is this the age of a child that you have to ask your mommy or the guidance counselor for permission to make your own decisions? Talk about infantilizing kids forever.

Many years ago, I took classes toward a Master’s degree in education, and one of the things that kept coming up was this idea that some communities of immigrants wanted their children to do very specific things with their lives. What I kept coming up against was this question of how the schools/teachers were supposed to accommodate immigrant parental expectations. However, I was sort of playing the role as an 11th or 12th grade teacher – the program was applicable to K-12, but I taught adult students one on one and could also apply the coursework toward that, so the K-12 equivalent for class purposes was senior high age students – and I had to repeatedly ask when the child was finally old enough to make the decision for themselves. Was some immigrant child in America going to just accept their parental plans for them at age 18, and was this a reasonable expectation of the kids? I never got a clear answer on that, but I see shades of that in this law. How about we just let kids make their own decisions and back off and worry about our own lives as adults once they graduate from high school? It would do a world of good for the busybodies in the community.

#18 Comment By grumpy realist On February 3, 2018 @ 3:08 pm

Siarlys–silly legislative “bars you must hop over” also end up often penalizing those of us who take more, um, non-traditional paths.

I’m one of those who never managed to graduate from high school. Combination of spending my senior year abroad and not getting the approved collection of courses that is necessary according to the State of New York to be considered sufficiently educated to receive a New York State High School Diploma (whoopee!) The fact that I was learning (in Japanese) Chinese poetry, Japanese history, calligraphy, and a boatload of other educational experiences did not make up for my failure of not having a) one year of American history and b) one more year of English literature. I think there was a mandated gym class missing as well. So I’m officially a high-school drop-out.

Interestingly enough, when I was applying to colleges, it was the lower-on-the-totem-pole places that got into a tizzy over my lack of a high school diploma. MIT couldn’t care less. They were just happy with my Japanese.

#19 Comment By Ashley P On February 4, 2018 @ 8:37 am

JohnF: People most certainly will hire you without any college degree at all. My husband works in IT. Has for, oh, 12 years now? Started in a call center and dedicated all that time to learning anything anyone was willing to teach him. Never set foot on a college campus, but he knows his stuff inside and out. To his employer, that makes him worth the $33/hr he makes.

We as a society place far too much emphasis on that magical piece of paper, the college degree. But the degree isn’t necessarily an indicator of real life skill. It’s just an indicator that you passed a series of tests. Many employers are discovering that a lot of colleges are little more than diploma mills churning out certified useless idiots (I used to work in health care, and there was one local school that was notorious for sending us applicants with not only awful medical training, but no practical life skills, either. They couldn’t even file paperwork properly.)

I think we’re going to see a trend of returning to on-the-job training and experience being valued over degrees, at least in most fields that don’t require as extensive an education(like law or pharmacology). I see no reason why a librarian needs a master’s degree in library sciences when I learned to do everything on the job in 6 months.

#20 Comment By Siarlys Jenkins On February 4, 2018 @ 8:20 pm

By the way, electric cars got at least one serious flaw that usually becomes critical if you’re not using the thing for leisure. You cannot charge it as fast as you can fill the tank.

That has its upside. Tesla and other companies are not putting money into electrically powered semis without having battery technology that can last 8-10 hours. But then, the driver gets to actually take the break they should be scheduled for as a matter of safety and worker protection, while the truck recharges.

#21 Comment By Frank On February 5, 2018 @ 1:31 pm

This blog has more teachers per capita than any other non-professional website I have ever been on.