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In Praise of Immigrants

Three new technologies of the last 20 years made America’s economy great again: the iPhone, Google search, and horizontal drilling and fracturing. All came from first-generation immigrants. Steve Jobs was the son of a Syrian immigrant; Google came from two young men, one a Russian immigrant; and fracking came from the son of a Greek goatherder. There is a simple reason: immigrants, to paraphrase Frankie Laine’s great song, do not have an “ace in the hole”—somewhere to get a free meal or a pad for the night. I too was one, from Russia. Immigrants didn’t have any ace in the hole; when I looked over my shoulder there was nothing except, sometimes, an imaginary hungry wolf. My mother got me a good education but as a child, I was among the poorest in almost any group of children. That’s the real incentive immigrants have.

Steve Jobs’s father was a poor Syrian—yes, an Arab of all people. Google’s co-founder was Sergey Brin [1], who came to America as a six-year-old. Google’s search engine is compared to Gutenberg’s invention of printing for its impact on mankind. George Mitchell’s father [2] was a Greek goatherder, hardly a favored category for the anti-immigrants. George himself [3] grew up in an apartment over a shoeshine stand which his father managed; he graduated first in his class from Texas A&M University. Quoting The Economist, [4] “few businesspeople have done as much to change the world as George Mitchell.”

Since the 1940s an oil or gas well was drilled vertically in oil sands maybe 200 to 400 feet thick; then the pipe was perforated with holes (fracked), exposing some 400 feet on all sides to flowing oil/gas. Horizontal drilling allows the drill stem and pipe to go outwards up to a couple of miles following the directions of the oil sands or rock. This meant that a single well could expose tens of thousands of feet of oil-rich rock in several directions to fracking and production! This put America back as the world’s top oil and gas producer. America is now building more and more gas export facilities and already earns billions of dollars from new gas exports to Mexico, Asia, and Europe. We will soon become the world’s third-largest liquid natural-gas exporter [5]. It has created hundreds of thousands of well-paying new jobs as giant petrochemical plants are also built to take advantage of our low cost gas. New pipelines are also bringing cheap natural gas to the East Coast and Northeast. America is one of the very few countries which can so prosper because of our network of pipelines and railroads in the producing states and our private ownership of mineral rights.

It’s immigrants who have always been vital for America; yes even the lowly, illiterate Mexican laborers upon which California and much southern agriculture depends. In Wisconsin, which is second to California in milk production, about 60 percent of immigrants on dairy farms are undocumented, according to a Bloomberg report [6]. I worked a summer on a dairy farm when I was 16. It’s tough work.

And half of all illegal immigrants are Europeans, South Americans, and Asians who overstayed their visas. Immigrants from India are leaders of tech startups in Silicon Valley. According to Forbes [7], “It’s not just Silicon Valley. We found that Indians start more companies than any other immigrant group in California (26%), Massachusetts (28%), Texas (17%), Florida (17%), New York (27%), and New Jersey (57%).” Half of all the Fortune 500 largest companies in America were founded by immigrants or children of immigrants! At the other end of entrepreneurship are the thousands of tiny lunch shops and services which provide convenient meals and snacks and other services in our great coastal cities. They are an immense convenience to office workers and are almost always run by Asians or Latinos. Then there is the vast amount of child care for working mothers and well-off career women provided mainly by Asian and Latin immigrant women.

The adoration of the anti-immigrants for assembly-line factory jobs is a fantasy. I suggest trying it. Or construction, where millions of unemployed Americans are supposedly chomping at the bit for jobs. I used to do it in my twenties and thirties. It’s tough.

Trump’s “millions of dangerous criminal aliens” now turn out to include all those who are paying Social Security taxes into U.S. citizens’ accounts or have a broken tail light in traffic. Trump just moved the goal posts!

Bin Laden’s Dying Wish

In 2009 I wrote “How Bin Laden Bankrupted America,” [8] pointing out that his ultimate dream was to create chaos inside America, to get Americans to fight each other. We are getting closer to that time with Trump’s anti-immigrant rhetoric and proposals. Trump’s vitriolic language and his splitting off immigrants from old-line nationalists are putting America on a downward path. Remember that Mexicans are less than half of our immigrants. There are also millions of Asians, Irish, Polish, and others who all now feel and fear that they could be next. If Trump also curtails world trade and damages America’s high-tech manufacturing and service sector in a vain attempt to bring back old blue-collar jobs, we will surely descend into chaos.


Jon Basil Utley is publisher of The American Conservative.

27 Comments (Open | Close)

27 Comments To "In Praise of Immigrants"

#1 Comment By carlton On February 21, 2017 @ 10:17 pm

A couple of points here. 1. If you go to a place like Bahrain or Kuwait, who is picking up their garbage daily? Palestinians or Indians. 2. Immigration of skilled folks is good here unless, like me you happen to have a degree in a so-called high demand field (STEM) and you have a student loan to pay, but you haven’t been able to get back in your field since you were laid off six years ago. With that degree and taxpayer backed student loan, why on earth is the government giving visas and green cards to businesses to bring in foreigners with degrees in the STEM disciplines?

I never would have taken a loan had I know that the government was engaged in that type of, well, croynism. There may be a need, but until I’m employed and many others like me, there is much that needs to be justified. I won’t pay the student loan as long the government is engaged in this game to do the bidding of big business. I’ll go to jail or whatever they do, but I refuse to pay unless they guarantee that before green card and visa one are issued that I and many others who have taxpayer backed loans will be looked at for the jobs. And, to me, though high-skilled immigration totally is the way to go, even allowing permanent high skilled immigrants over the H1B50 visas and green cards is a manipulation when citizens have taxpayer backed student loans.

#2 Comment By Jones On February 21, 2017 @ 11:11 pm

Thanks for the shout out. There is so much overheated rhetoric and demonization. Is it really that hard to believe that most immigrants are people who genuinely love the country and want to contribute to it? Why be so stingy with the idea of America?

You could also have cited the figures on the enormous proportion of doctors who are immigrants. In crucial areas like nephrology and gerontology, and in primary care in rural areas, a huge proportion are immigrants. These are the people taking care of grandma.


#3 Comment By Bob K. On February 21, 2017 @ 11:14 pm

A response to this has already been written in the new March/April 2017 issue of “The American Spectator.” See the last 2 paragraphs of “The Trump Challenge” at page 5. It does not pre-judge Donald Trump.

“Don’t expect us, however to trash the voters who placed this man in the White House — who viewed immigration policies, particularly the massive breach of our borders, as not just broken but a national betrayal; who chafed at the nation’s ongoing crony capitalism and Wall Street’s capture of Washington; who decried the squeeze placed upon Main Street commerce and financial activity; who condemned the governmental constrictions placed on the economy; who absorbed the greatest pain from the hollowing out of the U.S. industrial base; who suffered the slings and arrows of outrageous condescension from people who considered themselves their betters.

The question facing the nation is whether Donald Trump is worthy of these Americans. That’s the question that will occupy us as we survey the scene created by his effort at leadership.”

#4 Comment By egalite On February 21, 2017 @ 11:38 pm

“Remember that Mexicans are less than half of our immigrants. There are also millions of Asians, Irish, Polish, and others who all now feel and fear that they could be next.”

I don’t know where you get the idea that anti-immigrants have some kind of obsession with Mexicans. Most of us want an across-the-board immigration halt and are well aware of the huge number of non-Mexican illegals. In sum, the “Asians, Irish, Polish, and others” here illegally damn well ought to be fearful. They’re not “next” – they’re on deck right now. All illegals ought to be (and are as far as I know) treated the same – i.e. deported as quickly as is practical.

#5 Comment By Ben Sigler On February 21, 2017 @ 11:52 pm

LEGAL IMMIGRATION…during the 18th, 19th centuries immigration was orderly, secure humane, under legal, fair, conditions americans will not feel cheated!!! But leveling the playing field for everyone and will not aow corporate america to abuse,exploit, immigrants to undercut domestic qualify, trained, LABOR FORCE.

#6 Comment By EliteCommInc. On February 22, 2017 @ 2:33 am

“The adoration of the anti-immigrants for assembly-line factory jobs is a fantasy. I suggest trying it.”

I mowed lawns, roughed houses, and more including working the assembly line at a Sony Television plant, the grave yard shift.

Note the phrasing here “sdoration”. That assembly line tube removal was backbreaking, nonstop and hot. I earned a good penny, got a good workout, but adoration is not something I would apply to many jobs I have ever had. Nor would most people who work. I did that assembly work despite having attended college. The notion that americans are going to avoid available work, because it’s hard contradicts the lousy backbreaking jobs US citizens have worked and continue to work since the country was founded. And it is utter nonsense.

I take it you think of yourself some exception from US citizens who be as willing to work on a dairy farm to feed their families. You did it, I am unclear what barrier you think prevents other citizens from doing the same.

There are several solutions to this. Don’t live in the US illegally. Don’t drive in the US if you are here illegally.

“And half of all illegal immigrants are Europeans, South Americans, and Asians who overstayed their visas.”

A clear sign that we have a serious immigration enforcement problem. The 9/11 hijackers, some of them were here on expired VISAS. Based on estimate you provide it is safe to say that there are at least some 20 million people in the country illegally and siphoning off the economy in some manner of underground economy. Look if a brown or yellow face is what you prefer because it is more tre chic than hiring some black women, fine. Hire someone who is a citizen an here legally. Meanwhile for all of the work the tax payer is supplementing that individuals healthcare, services, educational demands etc. But I suspect that there are plenty of US women and who knows even men, working their way through college willing to

The amount of written material concerning Steve Jobs suggests that he was an astute advertiser. In fact, in many ways he hampered the business success of Apple. More importantly, there is no evidence that being of Syrian descent made a lick of difference; He was a US citizen and what he learned he learned here. And no doubt that his parental syrian background had some influence on his life. But how much of that made him the man he was at Apple is speculative at best.

And that remains the case for all of the immigrants in question. One would think that if it was the country of origin that created these men and women, they would do elsewhere. No. It’s more than likely the environment of the US. It’s open educational systems, it’s openess to explore (well use to be anyway). The impact of confluence of all these Us citizens vibrant creativity creates and encourages break through thinking.

I would indicate that in all of these examples, these men arrived out of what was a team effort and that there’s no evidence that being foreign born or descendants of foreign born parents is significant.

Fracking has its issues, I could just as well say that the problems experienced in all of these great breakthroughs which you claim saved the country, their disabilities are more likely to have been wrought by the foreign mind. But again, the evidence is thin on the uniqueness of being foreign born. I would place more emphasis on the working environment of the country, workspaces and collaboration with their Us citizen counterparts are a greater influence than their birth in Russia, Israel, Syria, Pakistan, China, Japan (a country whos revolutionary work practices were wrought by a US citizen. In fact, I would contend that it is the US influence that has had the greatest impact on development on the modern age. It is western broad mindedness about individual over track line class systems that is breathing an entirely new life to the poor of India, Pakistan and elsewhere.

The US is chocker block full of inventions by inventors who were born here, whose parents were born here and no less hampered by a difficult life than many supposed foreigners.

You are correct there are always US citizens willing to circumvent the system in order to make a few (a lot actually) extra dollars by hiring people here illegally or attached to some VISA program under the heading of specially needed immigrants. They short change on healthcare, taxes, get federal subsidies (no doubt) in the name of cultural exchange.

It should all stop until we can asses the actual ROI against the losses.

But by any measure the worst, incapable US citizen comes before the most brilliant foreigner.

I really appreciate the idea of NCLB which translates into NPLB who is a citizen of the US unless they want to be.

P.S. I am not discounting the effect of language complexity on cognitive thinking

#7 Comment By SteveM On February 22, 2017 @ 8:30 am

I give up…

P.S. Crony Tech, the Chamber of Commerce and other lovers of cheap, indentured servant labor salute Jon Basil Utley.

P.P.S. “Deplorable” American workers and American Technologists now living with crammed down wages or who have been kicked out of the workforce altogether – not so much.

#8 Comment By REEFSHARK On February 22, 2017 @ 9:48 am

The issue is not legal immigration. It is the rate of change of illegal immigration and the absurd belief that increasing the labor supply does not affect job opportunities for Americans and legal immigrants. Of course, Americans can still fight in endless and undeclared neocon wars.

#9 Comment By Ted On February 22, 2017 @ 10:10 am

An excellent reminder that the economic arguments against immigration are often weak at best. That we need to restrict the growth of the US economy to provide marginal wage growth to our working class (forgetting that a slower economy hurts everyone).

In Arizona, according to Moody’s, only 1/10 of the jobs performed by undocumented immigrants was filled five years after the passage of universal e-verify, and in that period the wages of those in the lowest quartile increased 6%. Restricting immigration was not a good bet for Arizona, and writ large it will be a disastrous bet for America.

Immigration is not just about economics, however, and I accept that excessive immigration can erode cultural unity. I accept limits are not just politically essential but probably culturally desirable. But let’s not go into this new age with blinders on, restrictionism has inherent economic risks.

#10 Comment By Kurt Gayle On February 22, 2017 @ 11:00 am

Mr. Utley says that “three new technologies of the last 20 years…[including the] iPhone…came from first-generation immigrants. Steve Jobs was the son of a Syrian immigrant…”

There is considerable disagreement as to whether any of the Apple products “came from” Steve Jobs. For example, this from Forbes writer Bob Evans (Dec 12 2011): “If you thought Steve Jobs invented theApple II, the Macintosh, the iPod, iTunes, the iPad, and various other profoundly successful and influential products, you’d be wrong. Because, you see, Jobs didn’t ‘invent’ them; no, he merely ‘integrated’ them.”

There is in fact considerable controversy as to whether Jobs even “integrated” these products. Many people have the view that other Apple employees were largely responsible for these products.

But leaving that controversy aside, what Steve Jobs did do was to send a lot of good American jobs to China and add a sizeable chunk to the US trade deficit. Six years ago David Sax, writing in Technology, outlined the impact of what the Jobs did and how the US jobs can be brought back to the US:

“The iPhone is the invention of an American company, Apple, and ought to benefit our nation’s economy. Why, then, is it contributing $1.9 billion to the U.S. trade deficit?…A paltry minority of the components of the iPhone are actually made in the U.S.—equivalent to only 6 percent of the phone’s $179 wholesale cost. The great bulk of the parts are made by Japanese, German, and Korean companies; they’re then funneled through China, where they’re assembled at Foxconn, and sent out at an inflated price…

“Yuqing Xing and Neal Detert [researchers at the Asian Development Bank Institute in Tokyo]: ‘Global production networks and highly specialized production processes apparently reverse trade patterns: developing countries such as the PRC [People’s Republic of China] export high-tech goods—like the iPhone—while industrialized countries such as the US import the high-tech goods they themselves invented.’”

“[Xing and Detert] offer a scenario in which Apple suddenly decides not to pursue profit maximization, dumps the oft-criticized Foxconn, and decides to pursue a model of corporate responsibility and patriotic we’re-in-it-togetherness. It’s true that U.S. workers fetch about 10 times as much as Chinese workers, and the manufacturing costs would rise to $68 per phone from about $6.50 per phone. But if Apple sold the phones at an average of $500 (already the asking price for some models), they say, it would still clear a 50% profit margin. ‘If all iPhones were assembled in the US, the $1.9 billion trade deficit in iPhone trade with PRC would not exist,’ reckon the authors. ‘Moreover, 11.4 million units of iPhone sold in the non-US market in 2009 would add $5.7 billion to US exports’.”


#11 Comment By Rosita On February 22, 2017 @ 11:05 am

Could not agree more with the author of this article and Ted’s comment above. America and almost all successful societies predating back to the Romans and Greeks excelled precisely because they were a magnet for skilled immigrants who brought dynamism; innovation, and yes DIVERSITY in thought and opinion. There is almost a direct correlation between the two. And no, I am not discounting the valid arguments presented by those like EliteCommInc. I believe all reasonable people can agree that all immigration including legal immigration carries with it inherent risks and absolutely there are downsides, and yes legal immigration is predicated on a careful economic balance between the needs of the native labor market and the opportunity cost of importing labor. However I think immigrants are now an easy scapegoat for the poor economic choices of ALOT of Americans. I hear people blame the ELITEs a lot around here; I suspect that demonized group has expanded to include any body with advanced education and skills who have prospered in this global economy. The point nobody put a gun to the head of middle America over the past 50 years. There was bi-partisan consensus for neo-liberalism; Ronald Reagan who is a conservative saint was unapologetic about a neo-liberal world order and he was STRONGLY supported by Middle America so people need to own up to their own complicity in their misery.

#12 Comment By BD On February 22, 2017 @ 11:09 am

Steve Jobs, although biologically the son of a Syrian, was adopted and raised by Paul and Clara Jobs who were not immigrants. He accidentally met his biological father when he was older, but didn’t have much positive to say about him.

#13 Comment By John Gruskos On February 22, 2017 @ 12:05 pm

The truth is, America simply does not need *any* immigrants. If the number of immigrants who arrived in America from now until the end of time were 0, America would survive and prosper just fine.

The legal system, infrastructure, and above all the social capital built by our ancestors will ensure the efficient use of new technologies, even if these technologies are initially developed elsewhere.

Native innovation would increase if we improved our education system by restoring discipline in the classroom, and stopped wasting time forcing the mental straightjacket of political correctness onto students.

Native motivation would increase if we removed the perverse incentives provided by the welfare safety net; section 8, SNAP etc.

Native participation in *all* economic niches is a highly desirable goal. Monopolization of economic niches by market dominant minorities has a tragically stultifying influence on native populations. The lack of market dominant minorities was probably *the* decisive advantage which propelled the rise of England (and early America), from 13th century backwards backwater to 19th century global dominance. The contrasting trajectory of Poland’s history, for instance, is telling.

We don’t need to be #1 in GDP and military power. If we have a strong alliance with Canada and the European countries, including Russia, we can easily maintain a balance of power with a rising China.

As long as Hollywood, the media, and the social science and humanities departments of academia are controlled by people who vehemently hate old-stock Americans, admitting immigrants is a mistake. Although the vast majority of immigrants are very fine people, their attitudes towards old-stock Americans will unfortunately be shaped to a large degree by the entertainment, news media, and education they consume. The movie “Harold and Kumar go to White Castle” is a perfect example. The producers of that movie are deliberately trying to propagandize immigrant groups such as Koreans and Indians. They want these other immigrant groups to share their own fear and loathing of old-stock Americans.

Furthermore, immigrants are being used as pawns to drive down wages and drive up housing costs while low skilled immigrants, who are a net burden on the government, increase the working/middle class tax burden (privatized profits, socialized cost), increase the Democratic Party’s voting base, and otherwise serve the interests of a hostile elite.

Here is an ideal immigration policy:
1. End absurdities such as the anchor baby loophole and dual citizenship.
2. Repatriate *all* illegal immigrants to their homelands.
3. Independence for Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Samoa, Guam, and Northern Marianas.
4. A temporary moratorium on *all* legal immigration, to be followed by
5. A new quota based system designed to reinforce the traditional character of America: Unlimited immigration of Afrikaners and Ulstermen, small quotas for Canada and European countries along the lines of the Johnson-Reed Act, and no immigration from Asia, Latin America, or Africa (other than Afrikaners).

#14 Comment By c matt On February 22, 2017 @ 12:27 pm

The most revolutionary invention of Apple was the graphical user interface, which was actually developed by Xerox, its potential recognized by Bill Gates, and then sold to Apple as part of its operating system. It is the GUI that lets just about anybody use just about any program on just about any computer with minimal training – no need to learn archaic commands or extensive programming. The GUI basically made computers and their potential available to the hoi polloi. To say Jobs “invented” that is a bit of a stretch. Regardless, as far as I know, Jobs, Mitchell and Brin are not the result of illegal immigration.

#15 Comment By the the On February 22, 2017 @ 12:46 pm

Nations around the world need their best and brightest if we are to have shared global prosperity. It is myopic and immoral to wish to take other nations great minds.

Its imperialism and its wronh

#16 Comment By Nelson On February 22, 2017 @ 2:52 pm

Didn’t expect to see a pro-immigrant article on TAC but I’m glad I did!

#17 Comment By Ken Hoop On February 22, 2017 @ 4:13 pm

Are there any writers left in this Buchanan founded paper who are anti-imperialist, antiwar and who are also economic nationalists? As for immigration, Buchanan has for a long while advocated a curtailment of even legal immigration, so wages of our founding ethnic core’s working class can get out of the doldrums.

Frankly I don’t see Trump’s ‘vitriol’ as being uttered in an ideologically methodical manner
but if the US is so ethnically frayed it can unravel due to same on “old-line nationalist”
(ethno-nationalist) lines, it really would be good
for it to do so a soon as possible so these divisions can be resolved methodically and people can then live organic lives without fear of
ostracism, even if the resolution takes as long as well, that of victimized Iraq seems to be taking.

#18 Comment By Across The Board On February 22, 2017 @ 4:25 pm

The idea that this is all about Mexicans is bogus.

Most of those of us who oppose more immigration want it halted across the board. That includes Europeans, Africans, and Asians.

We have all the people and talent we need. We should cultivate and reward the talent, industry, and innovation of our own people and promote their interests above all others. A government that fails to do that fails in a basic duty. A government that deliberately encourages foreigners to come and fight its own people for jobs and other scarce goods hasn’t just failed its duty to the people it is supposed to serve, it has betrayed them.

#19 Comment By Peregrinator On February 22, 2017 @ 5:53 pm

Steve Jobs’ biological father was neither poor nor an immigrant.

#20 Comment By mojrim On February 22, 2017 @ 10:44 pm

For whom and in what way did those inventions “make america’s economy great again?” Fracking is only viable with high oil prices, creates earthquakes, and destroys aquifers. Iphones are made in the PRC, employing only a small number of engineers (often H1B holders) in the US. Google employs a similarly tiny number of US residents while allowing people to find porn faster.

So, who’s benefiting here?

#21 Comment By M_Young On February 24, 2017 @ 4:01 am

Somehow ‘old stock’ Americans invented powered flight, morse code, and basically the [11]

We don’t need immigrants.

#22 Comment By M_Young On February 24, 2017 @ 4:09 am

“You could also have cited the figures on the enormous proportion of doctors who are immigrants. In crucial areas like nephrology and gerontology, and in primary care in rural areas, a huge proportion are immigrants. These are the people taking care of grandma.”

Funny, but ‘grandma’s” life expectancy is declining.

Go take care of your own, Jones. We don’t want you here, and you haven’t been a benefit, as evidenced by life expectancy tables.

#23 Comment By M_Young On February 24, 2017 @ 4:10 am

‘Greeks excelled precisely because they were a magnet for skilled immigrants who brought dynamism; innovation, and yes DIVERSITY in thought and opinion”

Uh, no. The Greeks were divided into tiny city-states that didn’t even cover the entire ‘Hellenic’ world. Somehow Athens, a sub-ethnic polity, managed to found Western political thought.

#24 Comment By M_Young On February 24, 2017 @ 4:15 am

“In Arizona, according to Moody’s, only 1/10 of the jobs performed by undocumented immigrants was filled five years after the passage of universal e-verify, and in that period the wages of those in the lowest quartile increased 6%.”

Meaning that 9 of 10 ‘jobs’ that illegals do – -mowing lawns, washing cars, aren’t really ‘jobs’ at all.

And a 6% gain in wages in 5 years is huge, especially against the background of 30 years of stagnant wages.

#25 Comment By Paula On February 24, 2017 @ 5:28 am

Excuse me, but do you know the difference between legal and illegal immigration? There is a difference you know. Maybe you should get out the old dictionary and shake off the dust and look up the words legal and illegal. Legal immigration only hurts if abused, such as companies firing all their American STEM employees to hire employees brought in to take their place that work for lower wages. Illegal immigration hurts all across the board. Most Americans are not lazy and will take a hard job if that is what it takes to put food on the table and a roof over their heads. It is not racist or xenophobic or any other liberal term used to shut down debate, to want jobs to go to Americans first and to want our immigration laws enforced and border secured. I though I was reading a Liberal narrative on the subject, not a Conservative. Since when have Conservatives stated using Liberal talking points to debate a subject and when did Conservatives start defending an open borders ideology?

#26 Comment By Winston On February 24, 2017 @ 8:25 pm

Migration has been the human story.
A Single Migration From Africa Populated the World, Studies Find

What I seem to see is “white” panic because the immigrants are “different”. Need to realize since “whites” are aging, it is allow immigrants from “different” countries or just quietly allow own country and what it provides its people decline.

Xenophobia is not a “white” issie4l alone. But Western countries can look at what is transpiring in xenophobic Japan. No amount monetary magic is lifting the economy. Simple an aging country buys less!

#27 Comment By R Huff On February 26, 2017 @ 12:31 pm

Mitchell, an immigrant sheepherder’s son, invented hydraulic fracturing. Wrong!. Riley “Floyd” Farris of Stanolind Oil & Gas invented the technique.


George Mitchell on the other hand had the vision of coupling the technique with horizontal drilling to expose more of petroleum bearing formation to the wellbore and thus increase the rate of production.